Dust collectors are essential air pollution control equipment used in a variety of industrial environments. They remove hazardous dusts and fumes that may be released into the workplace to improve air quality and comply with environmental and occupational health and safety regulations.
There are five major types of dust collection systems to choose from, each suited to different applications. Learn about each one to ensure you buy the right system for your needs.
How They Work
Dust and debris are generated in a variety of industries, including woodworking, food processing, chemical manufacturing, mining, and metal fabrication. Because they can pose a serious health and safety risk, federal and state regulatory agencies require certain operations to integrate industrial dust collectors into their facilities.
Dust collection systems reduce the amount of dust and debris that accumulates to a manageable level, which significantly improves air quality. Furthermore, dust collectors often include spark arrestors as a combustion preventative measure to help reduce the potential for fire.
Pulsing valves, timers, and demand pulse controls are common devices used to control dust collector operation. If these devices are not properly functioning, they can dramatically affect system performance and integrity.
The Filtration Process
The filtration process is the part of the dust collection system that removes contaminants, harmful matter, and gas fumes from the air. The filtration process varies depending on the type of dust collector used.
Filtration is the process of separating a solid from a fluid through a porous material that holds the solid and allows the fluid to pass through it. This separation can be chemical, biological, or physical.
A filtration medium or filter membrane is a porous material that has pores of a certain size. Particles that are larger than the pores of the filter medium cannot pass through it and are held over it.
A filter medium may be a paper, cloth, cotton-wool, asbestos, slag- or glass-wool, unglazed earthenware, sand, or another porous material. The filtrate that is produced after the filtration process is a clear liquid.
Dust collection systems are designed to remove the dirt, dust, particles and fumes from the air that workers breathe in. When employees aren’t breathing in the proper amount of air, their performance can suffer and they may be less likely to stick around for long periods of time.
A dust collector has a motor that is designed to pull air into the system, filter and clean the air, then discharge the purified air. The motor can draw high amounts of power when starting up and then reduces its speed as the process gets to a steady rate, which is a benefit for energy efficiency.
There are several types of industrial dust collecting equipment such as fabric filter baghouses, inertial separators (like mechanical cyclones), cartridge collectors, wet scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. Each type of dust collecting equipment is designed to remove different pollutants.
Ductwork is a system of metal or synthetic tubes used to transport airflow from heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment throughout your home. Properly installed and maintained ductwork improves your home’s comfort, efficiency, indoor air quality and safety.
A dust collector ducting system is designed to draw particulate away from industrial processing machines and filter the air that’s returned to the work environment or exhausted outside. It includes fittings and pipes that range from 3″ – 24″ in diameter and feature double-rolled connecting edges that clamp into place to provide heavy-duty seals.
Sizing ductwork is an important factor in optimizing its performance. If a duct is too small, it creates additional resistance and reduces the speed at which air moves through the pipe. On the other hand, if it’s too large, it won’t be able to move enough air and dust could settle out of the airstream. This could degrade the performance of the dust collector or increase pressure loss and energy usage, depending on the size of the duct.