Wood working is the art of creating things from wood. It entails skills such as carpentry and joinery, as well as wood carving and woodturning.
The first step in most woodworking projects is cutting rough lengths of wood into a usable shape. Saws are a necessary tool for this task.
Milling is the process of removing material in small cuts, often using a cutter. It is an essential part of woodworking.
The cutter can be spindle-driven or hand held. It is used to create a variety of features on a work piece, including holes, slots, pockets and even three dimensional surface contours.
It is also commonly used to add precision features to parts that were originally made using a different process. In some cases, the basic shape of the part is already formed, so only the desired features need to be added.
The rotary cutting action of the tool removes the unwanted material. This material is shaved off in the form of chips (swarf). The scrap is then propelled away by the motion of the cutting tool and the spraying of lubricant.
Woodworking joints are an important part of any piece of furniture or cabinetry. They provide the structural strength, sturdiness and beauty that woodworkers strive for in their projects.
Whether you’re creating a small shelf or a full-size cabinet, you need to know which joints are best suited for your particular project. If you aren’t familiar with some of the most common woodworking joints, you may need to brush up on your knowledge before tackling your next project.
One of the most basic types of wood joints is a butt joint. It’s easy to make and doesn’t require a lot of skill.
Another popular joint is a miter joint. This is a simple but effective way to join two end pieces of wood together, especially those with bevelled ends at a 45 degree angle.
The most robust type of joint is a mortise and tenon. This is a common joint in furniture and is typically found on the corners of doors, windows, and cabinets.
Shaping is the process of progressively increasing a desired behavior through differentially reinforcing successive approximations toward a terminal behavior (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007). The student demonstrates increasingly closer behaviors in each incremental step until they achieve the target response.
The process of shaping can be very powerful, but it also takes time to learn how to use effectively. Often, though, things do not go as planned.
Whenever you encounter a problem, spend some time thinking about why it did not work and then come up with a different way of approaching it.
You might find that the shape you have chosen is not effective because the jumps between steps are too large, that the reinforcers used aren’t appropriate or that the training itself is too threatening or coercive.
For example, imagine you’re teaching your child to get ready for school by requiring him or her to leave the room after 2 minutes if he or she is late for class. You can shape this by gradually decreasing the amount of time he or she has to stay in the room until they are ready for class.
Finishing a woodworking project involves applying a protective coating that helps the piece stand up to wear and tear. It also enhances its appearance by enhancing its natural grains and pores.
There are several options for finishing your woodworking projects, including waxes and oils. Oil finishes, like tung oil, linseed oil and cedar oil, provide a more natural look to the wood, while waxes offer a protective coating that preserves the wood’s natural color.
The final appearance of the piece is a major consideration when choosing a finish, as it can significantly affect its value and appeal. A clear finish, for example, can dramatically alter the appearance of a piece.
Some finishes, such as oil and shellac, deepen the appearance of the wood, while others, such as water-based varnish and catalyzed lacquer, simply lie on the surface. For this reason, it is essential to choose a finish that fits your aesthetic preferences.